Causes and Consequences
is an extensive literature on the causes and consequences of migration,
which identifies a wide range of economic, social and political
factors of importance. However, in terms of formal economic modelling
of these linkages, the existing literature also highlights the causality
or ‘endogeneity’ problems embedded in poverty-migration
linkages. This relates to the impact that migration can have on
improving or deteriorating welfare for migrants and non-migrants
at destination and source over time. Poverty may induce people to
migrate in order to improve their livelihoods but may in turn result
in them becoming further impoverished and more vulnerable.
In this context, on-going work at the centre stresses the need
to analyse poverty and decisions about mobility within a dynamic
framework of social networks, gender relations and economic and
political constraints. We aim to link these choices and frameworks
to outcomes by using available economic and demographic data where
it exists and new studies where necessary.
So far, two key datasets have been used in our modelling work:
first, the World Bank’s Living Standards Measurement Surveys
(LSMS), which in the case of Albania in particular has a large module
on migration; and second, a bespoke survey on migration collected
by the Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographics Institute (NIDI)
in Ghana, Egypt, Morocco, Senegal and Turkey, as well as in the
European receiving states of Spain and Italy.