Project 4c Internal migration and remittances
Summary Internal and international migrations are key livelihood
strategies for many in Bangladesh. Since the late 1990s various
studies have been conducted on remittance patterns of Bangladeshis
who migrate overseas. Remittances of internal migrants play an
almost equally important role in sustaining individuals and their
households. However, so far hardly any research has been conducted
that deal with patterns, flows and utilisation processes of remittances
of internal migrants.
makes an analysis of remittance flows of two groups of internal
migrants -- domestic workers and rickshaw pullers in Dhaka city.
The preliminary findings on domestic workers show that they are
mostly women. They represent various age groups including children.
They are paid very low salaries and no standardised wage structure
is followed. Work and living conditions are generally poor. A large
segment does not enjoy any private space. An overwhelming majority
remit their full earnings. Remittances are hand carried by mostly
male members or by the migrants themselves when they go home on
holiday. During the initial years remittances are mostly used for
maintenance of the family. After a few years a section of the remittances
begin to be spent on home repairs and purchase and mortgage of
land. Interestingly, the purchased assets are usually in the name
of male family members. These migrants work as facilitators for
further migration from rural areas. The
major policy thrust would be to argue for domestic work as wage employment,
with an entitlement to minimum wage and fixed working hours.
Key Research Questions
Who takes the decision to migrate?
How is information on migration secured? How do migrants secure
work in the urban areas?
What are their salaries/income
and other entitlements? What are the mechanisms used for negotiating
Are they subjected to abuse
What are the general patterns
of remittances? What methods do they employ? What is a migrant's
role in decision-making within the family?
What are the major policy reforms
that may be advocated?