Internal and International Migration in Egypt
The interconnections between internal and international
migration in developing countries have been little researched: the
two kinds of migration have generally been treated as different
processes. In reality most poor countries experience both, often
involving the same households or even individuals. Various combinations
and sequencings of the two types of movement can be mapped out,
and the complex interrelationships are many and varied, as are their
respective impacts on livelihoods and coping strategies against
poverty. These urgently need to be investigated, particularly since,
at least in some settings, a combination of internal and international
mobility may represent an optimal strategy for livelihood improvement.
Egypt has significant internal and international flows. This project
has examined the extent to which internal and international migration
systems are distinct, and the circumstances in which internal migration
leads to international migration or vice versa. The aim was also
to shed light on livelihood outcomes and their inter-generational
and gendered impacts, when different combinations of internal and
international migration emerge. The study involved fieldwork conducted
in two sites between which there was known to be migration -- Beni
Madhi village in Upper Egypt and the Imbaba suburb of Cairo –
exploring the extent of onward international migration.
Key Research Questions
||What are the different regional and temporal
origins of internal and international migration circuits?
||Do internal and international migration
involve different social classes, differences in length of migration
or permanency, and/or different outcomes for migrants and their
||What explanations can be found at the micro
and macro scales for relationships between internal and international
migration? Is there a choice or substitutability between internal
and international migration, especially as regards income-earning
and poverty-coping strategies?
||Can conceptual or policy lessons be learned
from comparing different types of migration?
Internal and International Migration in Egypt: A Pilot Study
Egypt / the Middle
Background review of literature.
||Field research in Egypt , including survey work in sending
||Data analysis and comparison with project 5b.
Ayman Zohry’s study provides ethnographic documentation
of individuals/families’ migration histories and current
socioeconomic settings. The ethnographic evidence presented
is from an Upper Egyptian village and a suburb in Cairo, but
illustrates similar processes taking place in all Egyptian governorates.
Although there are slight variations within the different governorates,
these do not invalidate the general picture which this study
aims to construct regarding the interrelationships between internal
and international migration in Egypt.
Findings of the study were presented at the DRC partnership
meeting in Ghana in July 2005, together with findings of two
other studies researching the links between internal and international
migration, one in Albania, and the other in Bangladesh (Project
5b). Chapters based on these studies will go towards a DRC volume
on the links between internal and international migration, edited
by Ron Skeldon.