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Types of Migration
Internal Migration
Global Labour Mobility
Child Migration
Skilled Migration
Forced Migration
Return Migration

Key Themes
Modelling Causes and Consequences
Links between Migrations
Rural Poverty and Livelihoods
Social Protection
Gender and Generations
Health and Education

UK / international
Albania / Eastern Europe
Ghana / Africa
Egypt / the Middle East
Bangladesh / South Asia




Bangladesh / South Asia

Bangladesh / South AsiaSouth Asia presents a diverse range of migration flows, including internal movements, international movements and those movements across borders. Reflecting this diversity, our work in this region is also multifaceted, covering internal and international migration, and linking them to livelihoods, social protection, changing intergenerational and gender relations, and migrant workers’ rights.

In Bangladesh, recent surveys show that all types of migration, internal and international, have increased significantly. AAmongst international flows, the region shows three distinct trends -- emigration for settlement to Europe, Australasia and North America; contract labour migration to Middle-Eastern and a few South-East Asian countries; and the movements of people in border areas. Though remittances have received some attention in policy making, migrants’ rights issues have been generally ignored. A number of research and policy advocacy activities are being conducted on accessing new avenues for overseas employment, migrant recruitment and preparation of migrants for deployment overseas; improvement of consular services and streamlining the labour recruitment industry.

Rural-urban migration is pronounced in the region, with the poor increasingly dependent on off-farm livelihoods. The social protection of temporary work migrants in India and Bangladesh, and issues around livelihoods and inter-generational equity are key concerns of two Migration DRC projectsour research.

Migration for work had been a predominantly male phenomenon in Bangladesh, till but more recently there has been growing demand, more recently for a female workforce in the garment factories set up in various parts of the country. The gendered and contextual choices made about migration in Bangladesh and India in terms of educational choices and outcomes constitutes the focus of another Migration DRC projectare another focus of our Centre.

The region also shows some movement of children for work. Migration DRC studies Our research on the migration of children seeks to understand the dynamics of intergenerational relations in child migrant households by identifying elements of cooperation and conflict in migration endeavours among child migrants working in the informal sector in Dhaka, and children in the food sector in Karnataka.


  Partner in Bangladesh
  The Refugee and Migratory Movements Research Unit (RMMRU)

  Key Projects
  1a: Social Protection of Temporary Work Migrants in Bangladesh and India

1b: Livelihoods, Social Protection and Intergenerational Equity in Migration from Bangladesh to the Gulf

2a: Migration and Child Survival in India

3b(3): Autonomous Child Migration in Bangladesh

3c: Autonomous and Other Child Migration in South India

3d: The stranded Bihari linguitsic minority in Bangladesh: Generational Perspectives

3e: Gender Differences in Migration Opportunities

4c : Internal Migration and Remittances in Bangladesh

5b: Replacement Seasonal Labour Migration in Sylhet, Bangladesh

6a: Balancing Rights and Risks Amongst Forced Migrants

7c: Mobility of the Highly Skilled in Bangladesh

7d: Student Migration From Bangladesh

8d: Model Code of Conduct for Recruitment Agencies

8e: Comparative Analysis of Welfare Services of Sending Country Missions in Receiving Countries

9a: International Comparisons of Return to Poor Countries

9b: Experiences and Coping Strategies of Failed Migrants


Women's Migration, Urban Poverty and Child Health in Rajasthan (WP-T26)

Migration for Hard Work: A Reluctant Livelihood Strategy for Poor Households in West Bengal, India (WP-T17)

Segmentation, Network Multipliers and Spillovers: A Theory of Rural Urban Migration for a Traditional Economy (WP-T9)

Internal migration an development nexus: the case of Bangladesh (WP-C2)

Migration as a livelihood strategy of the poor: the Bangladesh case (WP-C1)

  Sustainable Return of Professional and Skilled Migrants (Dhaka, 7-8 March 2005)

Marginalised Migrant Workers and Social Protection (Dhaka, 7-9 October 2006)
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With thanks to IOM and Claudia Natali for the photographs