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Types of Migration
Internal Migration
Global Labour Mobility
Child Migration
Skilled Migration
Forced Migration
Return Migration

Key Themes
Modelling Causes and Consequences
Links between Migrations
Rural Poverty and Livelihoods
Social Protection
Gender and Generations
Health and Education

UK / international
Albania / Eastern Europe
Ghana / Africa
Egypt / the Middle East
Bangladesh / South Asia




Internal Migration

Internal MigrationMany poor migrants seek greater economic security through seasonal or temporary mobility: indeed, such migration has emerged as a major livelihood strategy in many parts of the south (see Rural Poverty and Livelihoods). However, employment in poorly paid work often exposes migrants to hazardous circumstances, such as abusive employers, illegality and exploitation by middle men, and to danger, risk of injury and illness. Where families are left behind, they may face a range of problems arising from the loss of a critical productive member, which increases their vulnerability in a number of ways.

The extent to which this kind of migration provides, or could provide, a successful route to greater economic security depends, first, on actions migrants and their families take to protect themselves against new forms of risk and, second - and even more importantly - on the degree to which the local and national state, non-governmental organisations and community and voluntary associations contribute to their social protection. Temporary work migrants are often excluded from social protection measures because they lack effective social citizenship (as well as usually lacking either administrative or legal recognition).

Work under this theme so far has concentrated on South Asia, and includes linked projects on rural-rural migration in India and Bangladesh, and movement from Bangladesh to the Gulf. In each, a predominantly qualitative and case-study approach has been adopted, with the work led by local researchers, two of whom are registered for doctoral studies. The Centre has also funded an innovative ethnographic film project on migrant workers from an Egyptian village who are working in Paris, and new work on migrant domestic workers in Cairo is planned for 2006-07.


  Key Projects
  1a: Social Protection of Temporary Work Migrants in Bangladesh and India

1b: Livelihoods, Social Protection and Intergenerational Equity in Migration from Bangladesh to the Gulf

6d: A Social Profile and Analysis of Migrant Domestic Employees in Cairo


Livelihood Outcomes of Migration for Poor People (WP-T1)

Migration and Pro-Poor Policy in East Africa (WP-C7)

Migration and Pro-Poor Policy in West Africa (WP-C8)

Migration for Hard Work: A Reluctant Livelihood Strategy for Poor Households in West Bengal, India (WP-T17)

Social Protection by and for Temporary Work Migrants and their Households in Northwest Bangladesh (pdf)

  A conference, entitled 'Marginalised Migrant Workers and Social Protection', focusing particularly on seasonal labour migration in West Bengal, India and Bangladesh, will be held in Dhaka (7-9 October 2006).

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With thanks to IOM and Claudia Natali for the photographs